Freshers Interview Q&A- CLOUD
1. What is Cloud Computing?
Cloud computing is a technology that allows users to access and use computing resources (such as servers, storage, databases, networking, software, and analytics) over the internet, typically provided by cloud service providers like Amazon Web Services (AWS), Microsoft Azure, and Google Cloud.
2. What are the key benefits of using cloud computing?
Cloud computing offers benefits such as scalability, cost-efficiency, flexibility, rapid deployment, and the ability to access resources from anywhere with an internet connection.
3.Explain the difference between IaaS, PaaS, and SaaS.
IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service): Provides virtualized computing resources (e.g., virtual machines, storage, networking) on a pay-as-you-go basis.
PaaS (Platform as a Service): Offers a platform with tools and services for application development, deployment, and management.
SaaS (Software as a Service): Delivers software applications over the internet on a subscription basis, eliminating the need for local installation and maintenance.
4. What are the deployment models in cloud computing?
The main deployment models are:
Public Cloud: Services are provided by cloud providers and accessible over the internet to the general public.
Private Cloud: Cloud infrastructure is exclusively used by a single organization.
Hybrid Cloud: Combines public and private clouds, allowing data and applications to be shared between them.
5. What is the difference between horizontal scaling and vertical scaling?
Horizontal Scaling: Involves adding more instances (e.g., virtual machines) to a system to distribute the load. It is typically used in cloud environments and provides better scalability.
Vertical Scaling: Involves increasing the resources (e.g., CPU, RAM) of a single instance to handle increased load. It is limited by the capacity of a single machine.
6. What is serverless computing, and how does it work?
Serverless computing is a cloud computing model where developers can run code without managing servers. Cloud providers automatically handle server provisioning, scaling, and maintenance based on the code’s execution.
7. What is the Cloud Security Shared Responsibility Model?
The Cloud Security Shared Responsibility Model defines the division of security responsibilities between cloud providers and customers. Cloud providers are responsible for the security of the cloud infrastructure, while customers are responsible for securing their data and applications.
8. What is auto-scaling in the cloud, and why is it important?
Auto-scaling is a feature that automatically adjusts the number of resources (e.g., VM instances) based on demand. It ensures optimal performance and cost-efficiency by scaling resources up or down as needed.
9. Explain the term “Elastic Load Balancing” in the context of cloud services.
Elastic Load Balancing is a service provided by cloud providers that automatically distributes incoming traffic across multiple instances to ensure high availability, fault tolerance, and even resource utilization.
10. What is a Content Delivery Network (CDN), and how does it improve website performance?
A CDN is a network of distributed servers that cache and deliver web content (e.g., images, videos) to users based on their geographic location. It reduces latency and improves website loading times.
11. What is the difference between high availability and disaster recovery in the cloud?
High Availability (HA): Ensures that a system is continuously operational with minimal downtime. It typically involves redundancy and failover mechanisms.
Disaster Recovery (DR): Focuses on the ability to recover data and services after a catastrophic event. It involves backup, replication, and recovery procedures.
12.How can you secure data in transit and at rest in the cloud?
Data in Transit: Use encryption protocols like HTTPS, SSL/TLS for web traffic, and VPNs for private connections.
Data at Rest: Encrypt data stored in cloud storage services and manage encryption keys securely.
13.Explain the concept of cloud cost optimization.
Cloud cost optimization involves managing and reducing cloud expenses by optimizing resource allocation, leveraging reserved instances, and monitoring usage to eliminate waste.
14.What is multi-cloud and why would an organization use it?
Multi-cloud refers to using multiple cloud providers or platforms to host different parts of an application or workload. Organizations use multi-cloud strategies to avoid vendor lock-in, increase redundancy, and leverage best-of-breed services from different providers.
15. Explain what a Virtual Machine (VM) is in cloud computing.
A Virtual Machine (VM) is a software emulation of a physical computer. It allows multiple VMs to run on a single physical host, enabling efficient resource utilization and isolation.